When The Big Bang happened it induced energy into the universe in the form of volume-vise pulsations also described elsewhere on this site. These elastic universal pulsations or oscillations of the fabric of space is the origin of the zero point energy which, along with the longitudinal oscillations of the fermions and the transverse oscillations of the bosons, store all the energy that exist in our universe. Every single joule of it created by the Big Bang.
It should not be a surprise to anyone that these universal oscillations also have something to do with gravitation.
The zero point energy of the quantum realm is a result of oscillations of the elastic fabric of space between a large and a small volume of the same. At the large volume, the tensile stress in the fabric will make the expanding motion of the bulk of the universe turn around and have the fabric shrink until the compressive stress makes all of it "bounce" at the smaller volume and start the outward expansion again.
Being a product of what appears to be almost perfect elastic properties, the elastic modulus of the fabric of space ensure that the original compression or tension applied to the fabric of space at the Big Bang keeps it oscillating between compression and expansion continuously. The duration of such a complete cycle of oscillation appears to be only 5.4 x 10ˉ⁴⁴ s which explains why it is out of reach of direct detection. It is also, as explained in other essays on this site, the only duration of "time" that exist in our universe. And even so it now turns out that this duration is just an oscillating variation in the volume of the three dimensions. A space thing rather then a time thing.
The fabric of space then store the elastic energy almost as a pendulum does. There is however a difference because during one half of the cycle the volume of space is increasing while it is decreasing during the other half. You may get a picture of this if you think of a bouncing ball that, due to gravity, turn around at the top of the bounce and falls toward the ground where it bounces again. Then, think of ground level as the minimum volume, where the bounce occur due to compressive stress, and the top of the bounce as the maximum volume, where the tensile stress as represented by gravity pulls down on the ball towards a new bounce.
Next, replace the volume between ground level and the top of the bounce with the oscillating fabric of space. Then fill up that volume with the longitudinal oscillations of fermions which all quite promptly will start resonating with and be driven by the larger universal oscillations. Each fermion will then occupy a certain place in the fabric of space where it keeps on bouncing, always resonating with the universe. If it happen to be at rest it will keep oscillating at the same spot, otherwise it will find successive new spots in the direction of travel. Each placed a rather short distance past the previous. This distance, for a fermion traveling at a speed just below the speed of light, is a little less then the planck-length or just below 1.6 x 10ˉ³⁵ meters and will be added to the distance each 5.4 x 10ˉ⁴⁴ s, making a total of around 296,296,296 meters each second.
A moving fermion must have been accelerated at some earlier
instant. There are two ways this can happen. It may have
been pushed by another fermion or it may have entered an
area where the fabric of space has an overlay of other
oscillations on top of the always present universal ones.
The second option is what happens in the case of
gravitational acceleration, and the reason it only goes one
way is because of the bouncing mode of oscillation where the
expanding phase allow more freedom of motion then is
available in the decreasing volume at the other half of the
The interesting thing about this is that the "other oscillations" need not be associated with any visible mass, but may well be large volumes of the fabric of space that resonate with the universal oscillations in the same manner as the fermions do. That is, like gigantic longitudinal sound-waves. They could actually be the much sought after dark matter.
Accelerating the fermion by pushing it will also subject it to acceleration forces, something that does not happen with the second option, above. The reason we feel acceleration forces is because accelerating the fermion involve pushing it against the fabric of space in order to stretch this so the fermion will land at a larger distance from the previous bounce then it otherwise would arrive at. When you do that the fabric will protest by pushing back at you. The resulting braking effect is called Inertia and this is the origin of inertial mass.
In a volume of space that has an overlay of fermion
oscillations on top of the universal ones as described above
in the "second opinion", the accelerating fermion does not
experience any acceleration forces. This situation is
generally referred to as "free fall".
During free fall the fermion gain distance by passively taking part of the already present stretch in the fabric of space, automatically landing at successively larger distance between the bounces. The fermion will experience the braking effect of inertia only when it is stopped from accelerating by, for example the surface of a larger body of fermions from which the "other oscillations" on top of the universal ones might originate.
The push from the surface against the fermion in question now presses it against the fabric of space in order to have the next bounce land at a distance from the previous one that correspond with its present distance between the bounces.
Since that distance grows larger each moment during the "free fall", the fermion will again experience the braking effect of inertia. This time when the push against the fabric of space again tries to correct the situation. This version of the braking effect is actually the simple origin of gravitational mass.
So, how do these "other oscillations" get to become an
overlay on top of the universal oscillations? We need to
take a closer look at the universal oscillations in order to
understand that. The only thing we know about the beginning
is that something happened which we now refer to as the Big
Bang. How and why it came about is not known. Because we can
see that the distance to other galaxies is growing in a
systematic way we are fairly confident that the universe is
actually expanding. In order to understand why conditions at
opposite sides of the universe seem to be rather similar,
inflation was invented, and is now believed also to have
happened, although there exist no hard evidence so far.
There is also no hard proof of the kind of oscillations I am trying to explain about, so all of this is a deviation from the standard model of physics. Why then, do I insist that these purely speculative oscillations are so important?
Because they help to explain certain phenomena that that are left outside of the standard model! One of those phenomena is the origin of the Quantum Realm. Another is the present subject, Gravitation, but the most important to me, and the one that pointed me in this direction, is Time. It was originally Time I was interested in. The rest presented itself as I began understanding the origin and dynamics of Time.
Since we actually do not know exactly what happened at the
Big Bang, I have tried to work my way back from what we
think we know about the status today, most of which is
represented by the Standard Model. However, the Standard
Model does not, as I do, require any specific mode of
progress for Time. Working my way back with the requirement
that the progress of Time, and indeed, maybe even Time
itself could be discontinuous, I arrived at the idéa of the
universal oscillations. I also realized that the property of
spin could be caused by the relative oscillation mode
between such universal longitudinal oscillations and
resonating oscillations of the various types of particles.
That light is a transverse wave vith integer spin is already known, and a longitudinal soundlike oscillation of the fabric would allow for a wave based half integer spin model of the fermions.That these longitudinal waves of matter due to rather simple mechanical reasons cannot reach lightspeed is a bonus that serve to improve confidence in the model.
So, back to the oscillations. The best picture I can offer
is one where the observable part of the universe, as
presumably also the rest, oscillate in the manner described.
In this picture the bulk of the fabric of space is in motion
longitudinally between a compact volume where the fabric of
space is storing potential compressive energy, and an
expanded volume where this compressive energy now has
converted by way of kinetic energy to potential tensile
This oscillatory motion has repeated itself all since the Big Bang, and the duration of each cycle of oscillation is just 5.4 x 10ˉ⁴⁴ s as stated before. No matter where you would go to check, (if, indeed it had been possible) all points in our universe would be oscillating in unison, so in that respect they would all be sharing the same present, this 5.4 x 10ˉ⁴⁴ s long instant of "time".
Because the longitudinal oscillations of the fermions, just
like everything else in the universe, share the same instant
and are oscillations in the fabric of a universe which also
already is oscillating with the Big Bang induced
oscillations, they actually do form an overlay on top of
these universal oscillations.
This overlay of oscillations is packing directed kinetic energy, that is, the oscillation of the fermion in question will pull in on the fabric of space around it during one half of the oscillation and slack it out again during the other half. It would then seem that whatever other oscillation is sitting in this moving fabric of space would be brought back to the original position again during one full cycle, but that is wrong.
This only goes one way, and the reason for this is that during expansion more space becomes available, whereas the opposite is true at the phase of compression.
During the expansion whatever sits in the fabric of space will find that it not only follows the expansion, but the overlaid oscillations as well in the direction of the pull of the fermion.
As the expanding half of the cycle move on into the compressive half less and less volume will instead be available, so as the cycle approach the next bounce the pull now only serve to keep the "passenger" at the same spot in the fabric where it was at the turnaround.
The next cycle will then leave it at a new spot and so on until, in the case of gravitation, the "passenger" arrives at the surface of the aggregation of fermions causing the gravitational pull.